• June 15, 2019

elaborated with the help of the Keros classification. classification was used for the measurement of the depth of the olfactory fossa as follows. To determine the Keros classification and asymmetrical distribution rates of the ethmoid roof and the frequency of anatomic variations of the paranasal sinuses. Acta Otolaryngol. Feb;(2) doi: / Epub Sep 9. Is the Keros classification alone enough to identify.

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Keros classification of olfactory fossa | Radiology Reference Article |

The evaluation of the depth of the olfactory fossae and presence of ethmoidal roof asymmetry represents a significant aspect in tomographic studies, and should be included in the routine description of tomographic reports, considering the significant implication of these structures in the risk at endoscopic nasal surgeries.

This formation was evaluated as having either a straight or broken wing configuration, and asymmetry in the configuration was investigated. Classificatioon review our privacy policy. With advances in endoscopic sinus surgery, CT examination has become a part of preoperative evaluation. Thank you for updating your details. While right anterior clinoid pneumatization was more frequently found in men, MS hypoplasis and bone septum in MS was more prevalent in women. Using radiological means to determine the length and width of the olfactory fossa, as well as the depth of the ethmoid roof are crucial for planning the upper limit of the dissection.

The ethmoid labyrinth is covered by the fovea ethmoidalis of the frontal bone and separates the ethmoidal cells from the anterior cranial fossa. The depth of the lateral lamella was calculated by subtracting the depth of the cribriform plate from the depth of the medial ethmoid roof.


CT examinations should be used to explore the paranasal sinuses in the preoperative period because they provide a map for the surgical procedure and assist kwros complication avoidance.

Keast 14 New Zeland. Cribriform plate lateral lamella depth values according to Keros classification. A horizontal plane was established by crossing the horizontal line with the infraorbital nerves. The most frequent classification was Keros Type II.

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Maxillary sinus hypoplasia is a rare condition. Minor complications occur in 1. Configuration asymmetry in the fovea was found more frequently in the left side than the right side. These points were the medial ethmoid roof the point classificstion the ethmoid roof medially joins with the lateral lamella Figure 2athe cribriform plate point Figure 2band the infraorbital nerve point Figure 2c.

Of these, eight had configuration asymmetry in the left fovea and one had it in the right fovea Table 6. It pushes the sphenoid sinus inferiorly [ 13 ]. Radiological analysis of the ethmoid roof in the Malaysian population. In adults, the olfactory recess is a variable depression in the cribriform plate that medially is bounded by the perpendicular plate and laterally by the lateral lamella.

The radiographic incidence of bony defects in the lateral lamella of the cribriform plate. The presence of paradox concha was accepted when the paradox curvature was observed in at least 2 consecutive cross-sections [ 14 ].

The right and left sides were classified as having different Keros types in 5. Measurements between the right and left sides were compared. Keros created three categories for the classification of the olfactory groove according to LLCP height. Anatomic variations frequently found in the paranasal sinus region and the distribution of anatomic variations according to gender are shown in Table 7.

Radiology info hub: Keros Classification

Computed tomography assessment of the ethmoid roof: The average LLCP height was 3. Prospective study of CT scans. Unable to process the form.


A long segment of the lateral lamella can be found in cases with krros deep cribriform plate. Keros classified the depth of the olfactory fossa into 3 types based on the height of the lateral lamella [ 5 ].

Schnipper D, Spiegel JH. Essentials of functional endoscopic sinus surgery. Important anatomic variations of the sinonasal anatomy in light of endoscopic surgery: Endoscopic anatomy of lateral wall and ethmoidal sinuses. They did classificatioh look for the presence of septum deviation [ 14 ].

Anatomy of classificatiln ethmoid: Computed tomography images were analyzed using MX-View software, version 3. Clin Rev Allergy Immunol. The ratios of the other variations are similar to those in our study.

The end goal of these investigations was to gather this knowledge in an effort to reduce the rate of complications of endoscopic sinus surgery.

Because the anatomy of the drainage pathways and anatomic variations in paranasal sinuses are directive in ESS, these were also investigated. These images were acquired perpendicularly to the hard palate, from the anterior xlassification of the frontal sinus to the anterior margin of the clivus, with the patient positioned in ventral decubitus.

National Center for Biotechnology InformationU. A radiological anatomic study of the cribriform plate compared with constant structures.

We performed a Keros classification of the ethmoid roof, determined the asymmetrical distribution ratios, and investigated the frequency of the anatomic variations of the para-nasal classiflcation to further understand the anatomy of the skull base.