The Invention of the Passport: Surveillance, Citizenship and the State ( Cambridge Studies in Law and Society) [John Torpey] on *FREE* shipping. Daniel Nordman THE INVENTION OF THE PASSPORT Surveillance, Citizenship and the State John Torpey University of California, Irvine □H CAMBRIDGE. The Invention of the Passport: Surveillance, Citizenship and the State. Front Cover · John Torpey, Professor of Sociology John Torpey. Cambridge University .
The successful monopo- lization of the legitimate means of movement by states and the state system required the creation of elaborate bureaucracies and technolo- gies that only gradually came into existence, a trend that intensified dramatically toward the end of the nineteenth century. Gradually, compe- tition among states set in motion processes passpotr centralization that resulted in a winnowing of the number of competitors, such that only those states capable of mobilizing sufficient military and economic resources survived.
Too fre- quendy in recent academic writing, identities have been discussed in purely subjective terms, without reference to the ways in which identities are anchored apssport law and policy. In total institutions, the point is to deprive individuals of the personality resources that they might use to mount a defense against their passpirt.
Torpey Limited preview – The first three “natural and civil rights” promulgated by the Assembly were relatively general provisions dealing with equality before the law. On 6 Fructidor Year Fhe 23 Augustthe Convention decreed that passports in the depart- ment of Paris would be issued by the comite civil without any longer having to be referred to the general assembly of the section, and would be visaed by the revolutionary committee of the arrondissement.
The landless poor would then have work and sustenance, and hence no reason for taking to the roads as they normally did in times of need. Aside from merely authorizing domicile fhe particular places, certifi- invntion of residence were closely tied in to the incention of public welfare, particularly pensions.
Passprot, upon arrival at the French border, foreigners were to deposit their passports with the municipal authorities, who were to send them on to the Committee of General Security to be visaed.
Subject to statutory exception and to the provisions of relevant collective licensing agreements, no reproduction of any torey may take place without the written permission of Cambridge University Press. Anyone still so assembled after 1 January was to be considered guilty of such conspiracy and subject to the death penalty.
In a debate that would last throughout the revolutionary period and beyond, however, other petitioners to the Estates General demanded more vigorous enforcement teh the existing passport controls in the interest of greater public security. In fact, the passport laws were openly flouted and indeed mocked, as can be seen in the case of the emigres, tprpey began a od reflux after Thermidor despite the persistence of penal legislation against them. Surveillance, Citizenship, and the State”. It says something important about the divergent processes of state-building on the European continent and in the Anglo-American world that we lack ordinary English equivalents for the German “erfassen” as well as for the French verb surveiller.
If the traveler is honest, his passport will be an advantageous document for him, and it will flatter him; if he is not honest, it is necessary that his passport will put him under surveillance throughout the Imvention.
The regulation in any case bore witness to the undeniable fact that there is no way to identify a foreigner without some form of marking such as these cards. At the EUI, Raffaelle Romanelli’s enthusi- asm for the project helped sustain me through some uncertain times; my friend Christian Joppke pushed me forward, and provided plenty of good company. The persistent tinkering with these techniques indicates that states and other entities, of course have a powerful and enduring interest in identifying persons, both their own subjects and those of other countries.
This innovative book argues that docu- ments such as passports, internal passports and related mechanisms have been crucial in making distinctions between citizens and non-citizens.
John Torpey. The Invention of the Passport; Surveillance, Citizenship and the State
In this view, the lack of an aveu was itself evidence of counterrevolutionary intent; the obvious remedy was to reassert and strengthen the authority of the state to authorize and regulate movement. I also attempt to demonstrate that procedures and mechanisms for identifying persons are essential to this process, and that, in order to be implemented in practice, the notion of national communities must be codified in documents rather than merely “imagined.
I believe we would do well to regard states as seeking not simply to penetrate but also to embrace societies, “surrounding” and “taking hold” of their members – individually and collectively pxssport as those states grow larger and more administratively adept. Such certificates could be denied to persons revealing a liking for foreigners or foreign customs. The reach of the state, in other words, cannot exceed psasport grasp. In the process, it took the names of the eighty-three new departments from their geographical features and replaced paszport thirty-six royal intendancies with new departmental capitals in order to sweep away the spatial relics of the ancien regime.
Greer pqssport described the results as follows: The Directory followed immediately on his heels. The act of removing oneself from one’s place pssport birth thus appears to have been regarded as an anomaly, and may indeed have constituted a violation of the law without proper papers. The certificate of residence was to be issued by the municipality where the person was actually domiciled, and visaed within eight days by the district directory.
The royalist Vienot-Vaublanc of the neighboring departement of Seine-et-Marne supported Girardin’s motion to delay consideration of the “inquisitorial” law’s individual articles until after the impending weekend, provoking cries from the gallery when he suggested that overhasty decisions might make of France “a convent in which liberty is recognized in name only.
John Torpey – Wikipedia
Passports, as well as identification cards of various kinds, have been central to these pro- cesses, although documentary controls on movement and identification have been more or less stringently developed and enforced in different countries at various times. Surveillance, Citizenship and the State. Workers without either means of subsistence or a sponsor were to be registered as gens sans aveu; those who failed to indicate a previous domicile as “suspicious persons” gens suspects ; and, finally, those shown to have made false declarations were to be identified as “ill-intentioned persons” gens malintentionnes.
I argue that the emergence of passport and related controls on movement is an ttorpey aspect of the “state-ness” of states, and it there- fore seemed to be putting the cart before the horse to presume to compare states as if they were “hard,” “really-existing” entities of a type that were more nearly approximated after the First World War.
Enthusiasm for the nation and its definition by the state would mutually characterize that new epoch of which Goethe spoke.
A worker may properly be kept from crossing state boundaries, and may even be kept from crossing firm boundaries by the state, but not by the firm. It is perhaps noteworthy that Le Coz coined this phrase almost simultane- otrpey with Jeremy Bentham’s proposal in inventiln early 1 s of what Karl Polanyi called Bentham’s “most personal Utopia,” the Panopticon. In a further step, Torpey recounts the project of Nazi Germany to identify every subject.
In order to extract resources and implement policies, states must be in a position to locate and lay claim to people and goods. The foreign-born did not get off so easily, however. The spread of identification documents for foreigners in France.