Cataphora and anaphora are the two main types of endophora–that is, reference to an item within the text itself. Anaphora cataphora, endophora. Cohesive ties – typology. Reading: Dušková, L. Studies in the English Language. Part 2. Praha: Karolinum, Chapter Anaphora and Cataphora. LG. Loreto Garrido. Updated 10 November Transcript. This is what Fabian said. That all men were created equally.
He ‘s so cruel. The Case of The Others”. Non-strict cataphora of this sort can occur in many contexts, for example: Complement anaphora and interpretation. That sentence is just awful. Exophors cannot be anaphors as they do not substantially refer within the dialog or text, though there is a question of what portions of a conversation or document are accessed by a listener or reader with regard to whether all references to which a term points within that language stream are noticed i.
I should have known it: If you want themthere are cookies in the kitchen.
The various possible referents in complement anaphora are cataphorq by CorblinKibbleand Nouwen Complement anaphora and dynamic binding. Broadly speaking, an anaphor is a word that refers back to a previous word. He ‘s my boyfriend Nick. In complement anaphora cases, however, the xataphora refers to something that is not yet present in the discourse, since the pronoun’s referent has not been formerly introduced, including the case of ‘everything but’ what has been introduced.
Anaphora Resolution and Text Retrieval. Pragmatics Semantics Semiotics Syntactic relationships Tasks of natural language processing.
Same as previous sentence, in German. The set of ice-cream-eating-children in example b is introduced into anapnora discourse, but then the pronoun they refers to the set of non-ice-cream-eating-children, a set which has not been explicitly mentioned. A further distinction is drawn between endophoric and exophoric reference.
Because she studied really hard, Nancy aced her test. Crucially, these types of words anapbora corefer with another thing in the sentence, and the things available for coreference are limited. Uses authors parameter Pages using web citations with no URL. Contrastingly, example b has they seeming to refer to the children who are not eating ice-cream:. If you want somehere’s some parmesan cheese.
In anaphota theory, there are different types of centers: A listener might, for example, realize through listening to other clauses and sentences that she is a Queen because of some of her attributes or actions mentioned.
More generally, however, any fairly general noun phrase can be considered an anaphor when it co-refers with a more specific noun phrase i. Exophoric reference occurs when an expression, an exophor, refers to something that is not directly present in the linguistic context, but is rather present ansphora the situational context. The student saw herself in the mirror.
Lectures on government and binding: A, B, C, D. Strict cross-sentence cataphora where the antecedent is an entire sentence is fairly common cross-linguistically:. Quantification et anaphore discursive: The anaphor the right gadget co-refers with a digital camera. Cataphora of this sort is particularly common in formal contexts, using an anaphoric expression such as this or the following: Journal of Semantics, 20, 73— Retrieved from ” https: He ‘s really stupid.
In this narrow sense, anaphora stands in contrast to cataphoraccataphora sees the act of referring forward in a dialog or text, or pointing to the right in languages that are written from left to right: For example, the referent of the phrase the Queen using an emphatic definite articlenot the less specific a Queenbut also not the more specific Queen Elizabeth must be determined by the context of the utterance, which would identify the identity of the queen in question. It can build suspense and provide a description.
The second thing to notice is that the following two sentences have different coreference properties: The anaphoric referring term is called an anaphor. It may help to remember these terms using etymology: Anaphors and cataphors appear in bold, and their antecedents and postcedents are underlined:.
Anaphora and Cataphora by Loreto Garrido on Prezi
Cataphora across sentences is often used for rhetorical effect. In this sentence, the pronoun he the cataphor appears earlier than the noun John the postcedent that it refers to.
So the first thing to notice snaphora is that the pronoun comes first. The examples of cataphora described so far are strict cataphora, because the anaphor is an actual pronoun.
Cataphora of this sort is particularly common in formal contexts, using an anaphoric expression such as this or the following:. In some cases, anaphora may refer not to its usual antecedent, but to its complement set.
Both effects together are called either anaphora broad sense or less ambiguously, amaphora with self-reference they comprise the category of endophora. This page was last edited on 3 Julyat Journal of Semantics 11, —