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As the calculations use the estimated consumption by users as its basis, it is necessary to harmonise the classification schemes of the AFEMS nomenclature see Table 3. Finally, as stated in section 3.

Not available 1 [Jensen et al. Although the import and consumption of lead candle wicks in Europe likely bekenddtgrelse small the risk exists that some consumers are exposed to lead fumes from lead wicks in candles and the lead dust generated by those fumes.

Advantages and drawbacks of restricting the marketing and use of

The propellant is uniquely designed for each single product type different calibres, different pellet sizes, different purposes. For neurological, metabolic and be-havioral reasons, children are more vulnerable to the effects of lead than adults. New data on tungsten Recent studies on tungsten has created concern about possible links between tungsten and leukaemia and animal data suggesting reproductive and develop-ments effects as well as possible neurological effects has caused tungsten and several tungsten compounds to be nominated to the US Toxic Substances Con-trol Bekendtgrelsee Priority list [Begley ; Federal Register ].

It is thus likely that the calculated fig-ures in reality represents calculation “noise” and statistical errors more than actual manu-facturing. Old guns However, older guns with thin-walled barrels may not be able to use steel shot and may be damaged if trying. To the extent manufacturing activity is taken over by other European companies, the economic impact is minimized, but social costs related to bemendtgrelse Costs for machinery adaptation Costs of a complete or partial industry conversion Advantages and drawbacks of restricting the marketing and use of lead in ammunition, fishing sinkers and candle wicks Relevance of a community wide ap-proach P: A change in the overall activity amount of ammunition sold and used in hunting and sport shooting following a restriction on the use of lead in ammunition.

Kommissionen fremstter forslag om kloning af Documents. A similar estimate is made for centre fire cartridges used for hunting. The incremental cost of ammunition to the average European shooter is esti-mated at 27 – 55 for shotgun ammunition, 2 – 20 for bullet ammunition, and 8 for airgun ammunition, corresponding to a total of 37 – 99, if lead am-munition was to be completely banned for all shooting.

However, it must be recognised that all hunters, no matter the type of shot used, may face and should be able to handle situations where risk of ricochets are present. In practically all cases where existing ranges have been located in particularly vulnerable areas wetlands for example or where modification has not been deemed feasible, facilities have been shut down.


Thus the only argument in favour of a community wide approach in this context would be the implications of such restrictions towards the free trade across the EU. Lead in abandoned fishing equipment collected as waste may furthermore be a source of lead to bekendtgrelee incineration bekendtgrrlse thus add to lead emissions to air and the con-tent of lead in residual products recycled to civil works etc.

Alternatives of lead for airgun pellets seem to be tin and zinc-aluminium pel-lets. Occasional removal of bullets is required as for the earthen backstop. With a retail price of a lead shot cartridge of 0. In France the regu-lation is still not in force. Lead shoot may be used until 1 January for the disciplines ‘trap’, ‘double trap’, ‘skeet’ and ‘automatic trap’ and until 1 January for competi-tion in ‘jaktstigskytte’ a Swedish training exercise simulating hunting with tar-gets of different sizes on different distances.

Once contained, lead ammunition can be recovered by a number of techniques including sifting, vacuuming and soil washing. Thus, steel shot today should be regarded as fully qualified for competition shooting as-suming that all competitors are using steel shot.


Summary While iron presents an clear improvement compared to lead considering toxicity as well as other environmental issues although steel shot besides iron contain small amounts of heavy metalsother alternatives suffers from one or more disadvantages inclusive of lack of data.

While tin pellets are claimed to be as accurate and soft as lead pellets, the experience of zinc-aluminium pellets is not always positive. Ammunition compo-nents Advantages and drawbacks of restricting the marketing and use of lead in ammunition, fishing sinkers and candle wicks It is impossible at this stage to quantify the general effects for the markets of a complete or partial ban on lead ammunition in Europe.

Costs of reduced remedial actions related to shooting ranges and other areas exposed to soil contamination are not included. According to industry estimates approximately mill. Apart from wetlands, lead shot for hunting is banned in Denmark, the Netherlands and United Kingdom specific sites and species.

Advantages and drawbacks of restricting the marketing and use of …

The total consumption for manufacturing is estimated bekendtgrelde about 53, tonnes of lead. There is evi-dence that frog and toad eggs are sensitive to nominal lead concentrations of less than 1. Lead casting may relatively easy be replaced by zinc casting by using other moulds while manufacturing of iron or steel is more complicated and requires different equipment and expertise. According to the questionnaire response, Poland has some specific regulation on the construction and use bekendtgrelsd shooting ranges Regulation of Ministry of Envi-ronment of 4 April on special requirements concerning construction and use of riffle-ranges in regard to protection of the environment.

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It is thus likely that the calculated fig-ures in reality represents calculation “noise” and statistical “errors” more than actual manu-facturing.

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Nets can also be placed horizontally in the shot fall zone to catch shot and prevent them from being Options of substitu-tion Recovering of lead from shooting ranges P: Traps based on wood chips but otherwise similar to sand traps are used by the Danish army.

This estimate is based on an estimated 6. However, this assumption has actually not been documented and no water qual-ity criteria for tin, bismuth and bismuth have been identified.

Bekdndtgrelse has been beyond the scope of the current study to undertake a risk assessment. The environmental concerns as to the use of lead sinkers are mainly related to the use of lead split shot and small sinkers for fishing in inland waters as in par-ticularly waterfowl are migratory birds and the actions of individual Member States may naturally influence other Member States. Accord-ing to ISSF rules, rim fire calibre. Further information on legal and voluntary use bekendtgfelse were collected by questionnaires in English, French and German sent to hunters’ associations in 26 old and new Member States and Candidate Countries based on a list of asso-ciations obtained from FACE Federation of Associations for Hunting and Conservation of the EU.

Spread over 5 years this conversion cost corresponds to an annual incremental cost of 13 per hunter. Bismuth and tungsten substitutes are bekendtgeelse high end sub-stitutes, while zinc and iron are the cheap alternatives. Lead shot; Airgun pellets; Bullets. Danish experience from shooting ranges where steel shot are used shows that clay pigeons frequently can be found on the ground penetrated by one 1181 two holes but otherwise undamaged [Winther ].

Data for consumption and manufacturing has furthermore been esti-mated for Hungary, Lithuania and Bekehdtgrelse as representatives of the new Mem-ber States. According to the Danish Hunters Associa-tion [Kanstrup a], all predictions related to exploding guns, increased number of crippled game etc.

Zinc is toxic to birds, but less toxic than lead considering birds bekenftgrelse well as soil and water. The sensitivity varies between species and is dependent on the diet. However, it seems likely that the demand bekfndtgrelse machines for manu-facturing of other types of pellets will increase accordingly to the request of lead alternatives.