• June 20, 2019

Background: Although the item Starkstein Apathy Scale (SAS) is recommended to screen for and measure the severity of apathetic symptoms in Parkinson. Although the item Starkstein Apathy Scale (SAS) is recommended to screen for and measure the severity of apathetic symptoms in Parkinson disease (PD). Items 9 – 14 breviated version of the AES, known as the Apathy Scale. Copyright © SciRes. .. [6] Starkstein, S.E. and Leentjens, A.F.G. () The noso-.

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Thus, the beneficial effects of cholinergic therapy in AD needs to be replicated in larger, adequately powered clinical trials. About two thirds of the AD patients with apathy were also depressed either major or minor depression.

Author links open overlay panel Kenn Freddy Pedersen M. Mental and behavioral disturbances in dementia: We will briefly discuss the neurobiological basis of apathy, and also review pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment modalities. These findings suggest that apathy in Alzheimer’s disease should not be considered as a symptom of severe depression only. A randomized, controlled, clinical trial wtarkstein activity therapy for apathy in patients with dementia residing in long-term care.

Reliability, validity, and clinical correlates of apathy in Parkinson’s disease.

Important issues for further research are the validation of the clinical construct of apathy in neuropsychiatric disorders, better knowledge of those brain lesions that may be associated with apathy, and finding effective treatment modalities for this condition.

Group differences in the relationship between apathy and depression. Starkstein and coworkers developed a item Apathy Scale Table IIwhich is an abridged and slightly modified version of Marin’s instrument Starkstein et al. Finally, we also found that patients with apathy at baseline or those that developed apathy during the follow-up period had a faster cognitive and functional decline than patients with no apathy at baseline or at follow-up.

Recent Developments in Parkinson’s Disease. We found a significantly greater increase in depression scores during the follow-up period for patients with apathy as compared to those without apathy, suggesting that apathy is a significant predictor of depression in AD.


They hypothesized that disruption of an “emotional-affective” process may produce apathy due to the inability to associate affective and emotional signals with overt behaviour; disruption of the “cognitive” process may result from impairments on cognitive functions that are “needed to elaborate the plan of actions”; whereas the “auto-activation deficit” may result from “difficulties in activating thoughts or initiating the motor program necessary to complete the behaviour”.

J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci ; 16 4: Patients with apathy were significantly older, had more severe cognitive deficits and more severe impairments in activities of daily living than patients without apathy.

Brain Inj Jan; 13 1: The mechanism of apathy in neuropsychiatric disorders remains unknown, but recent studies suggest that disruption of frontal cortical-basal ganglia circuits and executive dysfunction may both play an important role.

Briefly, apathy was diagnosed whenever patients had 1 Poor or no motivation as rated with item 7 on the Apathy Scale2 Poor or no interests as rated with items 1 and 2 or effort as rated with items 4 and 9and 3 Feelings of indifference or lack of emotions most or all of the time as rated with items 10 and One of these circuits originates in the anterior cingulate cortex, connects with the ventral globus pallidus and the dorsomedial thalamus, and projects back to the anterior cingulate.

Several treatment studies suggested that anticholinesterase compounds may improve apathy among patients with dementia.

Recent studies found that apathy in Alzheimer’s disease is significantly associated with older age, relatively more severe cognitive deficits, depression, and more severe impairments in activities of daily living.

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In a study that included patients with AD, Landes and coworkers diagnosed apathy based on a cut-off starkatein on the Dementia Apathy Interview and Rating Landes et al.

After 26 weeks of treatment there was a significant improvement of apathy, as measured with the Neuropsychiatric Inventory. Several instruments are now available to rate the severity of apathy. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry ; Recent studies emphasized apathj potential importance of parallel and segregated cortico-subcortical loops originating from and terminating in the frontal lobes for the mechanism of neuropsychiatric disorders Cummings Behavioral syndromes in Alzheimer’s disease: Thirteen of these 29 patients also had major stakrstein, 5 patients had minor depression, and 11 patients were not depressed.


Athymhormia and disorders of motivation in Basal Ganglia disease. In conclusion, whilst apathy is one of the most frequent behavioural changes in neuropsychiatric disorders, its clinical assessment is still problematic.

Treatment of apathy There are few randomized controlled trials of pharmacological or non-pharmacological treatments for apathy starketein AD. Recent studies provided working definitions of apathy that were operationalized into standardized diagnostic criteria.

Marin and coworkers were the first to validate the Apathy Evaluation Scale for use with patients with stroke, Parkinson’s disease, or Alzheimer’s disease Marin et al. The problem with this hypothesis is how to avoid the Cartesian dilemma of psychological states motivation and past or present emotional experiences producing a physical state action.

SAS – Starkstein Apathy Scale

Finally, there is some empirical evidence that starksttein inhibitors such as donepezil may improve cognitive functioning, motivation and general well being of patients with traumatic brain injury Arciniegas et al.

Furthermore, patients with dementia and apathy have a significantly faster cognitive and functional decline than demented individuals without apathy. Clinical information was obtained from caregivers, who filled the Apathy Scale about the patient. The authors examined the reliability, factor structure, and discriminant validity of the SAS in nondemented starkstein apathy scale with early untreated PD.

Cummings developed the Neuropsychiatric Inventory as a multidimensional instrument administered to an informant Cummings Several treatment studies suggested that anticholinesterase compounds may starkstein apathy scale apathy among patients with dementia. Apathy is not depression.